Tobacco factory
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Tobacco history in Russia

About tobacco history in Russia.

In Russia, the first familiarity with tobacco was in 16-17 century. Under Ivan the Terrible and his successors, English merchants conveyed tobacco, tobacco got into mercenary-officers baggage, got into Moskovia along with interventionist troops and Cossacks in Smuta time.

However, time of inside disorders has passed, and the government of Tsar Mihail Fedorovich Romanov has become to suppress the slightest hint of freethinking. Tobacco has been strictly banned. After conflagration in Moscow in 1634, it was accepted that the reason of it was smoking. Its ban was imposed on penalty of capital punishment. There was a capital punishment for insubordination. In practice, it was a substitution of nose cutting.

The government of Alexei Mihailovich in 1646 monopolized tobacco purchasing, to reasonable detected in it the state benefit. Nonetheless, the powerful patriarchy Nicon, who greatly influenced on the young tsar, has attained the renewal of draconian measures against tobacco. In cathedral code dated of 1649 it was ordered to beat smokers by batoga, pulling out of nostrils, banishment, in which connection it was for women as well.

Actually, Russian authorities were not original, sometimes by allowing tobacco usage sometimes by strictly fighting with it. 18 century was knocking at the door, century of enlightenment and mercantilism. The government has only started to understand that profit can be and must be made from any pernicious habit of the population.

Still in February-April in 1697, the young tsar Peter legalized tobacco selling and set the rules of its spreading. Having gone at full speed, Peter Alexeevich has stayed in Holland. On shipyards of Saardam town, smoking has become a habit with the tsar. The interests of treasury required involving in the number of tobacco-workers of as many Russian people as possible. Without thinking twice, tsar has set a standard of the selling tobacco quality. Suitable places were found for tobacco growing. Peter have found the necessary specialists and established tobacco plantations in Malorussia. In 1716 in the same place, in Ukraine the first Russian tobacco manufactory was founded. Later it has appeared in Petersburg and in the near Moscow regions. Malorussia tobacco at those times was of so high quality that it has been even imported to abroad.

Along with tobacco, legalization pipes are appeared in Russia. Pipe has become invariable attribute, which is associated with Peter the Great.

But the successful beginning of Peter the First there and then has become to destroy mercenary officials. After the death of Peter, earl Shuvalov has become to mix tobacco with stamped glass and sand for making it heavier. Such a tobacco has finished being in demand as in Russia as beyond its bounds.

Russian Ekaterina the Great has started to revive tobacco business. Russian tobacco has once again started to sell in Russia and abroad. History has also attached to Ekaterina the Second the fashion on cigar bows. It has been considered that they should have been for protecting from whiteness of gloves during cigar smoking. By the middle of 19th century only in one Moscow, production on 4 large tobacco factories were put in order, in which there were from 250 to 1000 workers.

By the middle of 19th century only in one Moscow, production on 4 large tobacco factories were put in order, in which there were from 250 to 1000 workers. In the beginning of 60th of 19th century, an order was issued according with which it was prohibited to smoke outside. Those who were at fault were instantly get to police station. This order has leaded to a great deal of street scandals and quite a lot fires have resulted from it. Smokers throw their cigarettes everywhere with fright. At those times, smoking of cigarettes was only starting to replace snuff, but nevertheless it has been in fashion for a long time. Tobacco has borne many names. In Moscow, makhorka was grinded by people themselves and everyone flavored it with his own taste. And, every smoking lover keeps his recipe in secret, as though guarding it from grandfathers.

For the last time smoking has become widely used. After the First World War, the complete cigarette boom could be seen.

Tobacco has become an integral part of soldier's ration. After revolution of 1917, nationalization of tobacco factories has happened.

Only more than 10 years later, after new techniques introduction, it has been managed to achieve pre-revolutionary level of production. In 1927 in Krasnodar, the very first tobacco fermentation factory was built.

During the time of war production capacity were evacuated and based on them were created tobacco factories in Volga region, in Ural, in Siberia and production was enlarged in Middle Asia. Renewal of the factories promoted to impetuous increase in production. In 50th filter-tipped cigarettes has appeared in the tobacco goods market. First attempts to placard an inscription on pack of cigarettes by Ministry of Health of the USSR were made only in 1977-1978. It explained itself by presented deficiency of cigarettes, as tobacco purchasing did not provide with necessary production volume.

The beginning of 90th has become a turning point for majority of the Russian enterprises. Some of the tobacco enterprises were not able to endure the survival race. Others were reorganized into joint-stock companies.


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