Tobacco factory
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Tobacco history

Tobacco history

      Till the end of 15 century, this plant is likely to be unknown, except for natives from American continent. Archeological digs have shown that 4000 years ago and probably earlier, North-American Indians have been already using tobacco. In the ancient civilizations magic and healing power were attached to tobacco smoke. The word “Tobacco” is probably come from the Tobagan island name. As requested by Spanish sailors evidences which were arrived to the coast of present Central America in the 15th of October in 1492 with Columb’s expedition, the word Tobacco was used as the big twisted leaves which were intended for ritual smoking. Consequently, Spaniards and Portuguese have brought leaves and seeds to Europe and despite of the inquisition prohibitions Europeans have started to cultivate tobacco.

    The ambassador of France at the Portuguese court, Jean Nico has sent a little of tobacco to the queen Ekaterina Medici by recommending that it is a remedy for migraine. A short time later, the fashion of snuff tobacco has spread all over the France. In honor of Nico this plant has consequently received the latin name Nicotiana, and separated from it alkaloid in the 19th century accordingly “Nicotine”. Since the second half of the 16 century, tobacco has quickly gained the popularity as an herb, almost panacea.

    Tobacco was taken snuff, smoked by pipe, masticated, mixed with different substances and used for cold, headache, toothache, skin and infectious diseases treatment. In 1580 English aristocrat, heavy smoker, sailor and poet, Sir Walter Reilly has created a tobacco plantation in Ireland and later some more of them on the American Colonial Territories. One of them he called Virginia that has consequently given a name for the most widespread type of tobacco. In the beginning of 17th century on the territory of modern America, in English Colonies for the most part, there were appeared the other tobacco plantations. In 1611, John Rolf created such a plantation in Virginia. He imported tobacco seeds from Trinidad and Venezuela, as for technology, he borrowed it from Walter Reilly and improved it. In already 8 years the export of tobacco has started from Virginia to England and John Rolf himself has settled down in the New World forever and even married to American Indian leader who gave him a piece of advice to try his luck in tobacco-cultivation. Among aristocrats, there were the other passionate admirers of tobacco.

   The King of Prussia himself Frederick the first (the beginning if 18th century) held smoking festivals at German court and his son Frederick-William the first has even established so-called Tobacco-Board on meeting which seemingly were combined such different things as reasoning of state affairs, small talks and unconstrained feasts which were accompanied with excessive pipe smoking. Out of the Russian Kingly tobacco lovers in the first place can be remembered of course Peter the first and maybe no one else. But to put it mildly there always have been tobacco opponents and not only in the person of inquisition.

   The king of England James the first in the beginning of the 17th century repeatedly was against smoking considering this habit as a very harmful to health. It was playing into the trade of Spanish hands and what is especially just is that it put people to the state of conciliation in that way that it was weakening the military power of the country. He has imposed the customs to tobacco import into England. In France about at the same time, cardinal Reshelie has undertaken the same. It is of course has not stopped tobacco spreading but just promoted the prosperity of contraband import. As for the East, especially where because of hot climate, smoking frequently became the reason of fire and there were a more severe penalty for this. In Turkey, smokers were subjected to corporal punishment, shameful ceremonies and even sentenced to death. In Japan, you can be put into prison for smoking and in Russian, you can be subjected to tortures or mutilations. Actually, all the restrictions and admonitions as did not help to eradicate smoking as it does not help now, when it is known for every child that tobacco smoking is harmful to the health.

    At the time America was discovered, tobacco was already in general use. South and Central American Indians smoked long cigars, which were twisted from the Koiba plan leaves. This tradition still remains in South America population. In Cuba Indians language, the word “koibo” meant the smoking process. Spaniards and Portuguese borrowed cigars and spread them from Europe, in the first half of the 17th century. In Mexico and in North America Atsteky and Indians were pipe smokers and since Englishmen started its settlement of the New World from the North America. They originally borrowed pipe tobacco smoking, by which put right their production of pipes from the particular shrubby heather.

    The history has precisely fixed the date as well as the circumstances by which The Europe population perceived sweetness of tobacco smoking process. In 1597 Roman Panov in his narration about the second cruise of Columb to America announced the quite definite details about prevalence of the custom to smoke tobacco among the population of this country. During the first cruise of Columb in 1492, Antilles inhabitants appeared before him in the smoke of tobacco, they wrapped tobacco in maize leaves and took it the form, which is reminiscent of cigar. The posterior travelers found out that pipe tobacco smoking is widely used all over America and just in some parts of east coast of the South America it is changed by tobacco mastication.

   From the beginning, Europeans drew their attention mainly to the medical properties of tobacco leaves, then to their capability for appeasing of the hunger and to support vivacity. Citizen of Milan city Jiralomo Bentsony, living in Mexico between 1541 and 1555 has announced that in this country smoking tobacco is called tabakko, from which this name was borrowed. In 1556 member of the French expedition to South America, missionary Andrey Teve (Thevet) imported the tobacco seeds to Paris, which he called le Petun.

   Teve has given a definition of smoking process on the banks of rivers Maraniena, where dried leaves of tobacco are wrapped in palm leaves by forming something like long pipe. In 1560, French envoy in Lisbon Jean Nico (Nicot) imported the seeds of this plant to France where he initiated the tobacco culture. Botanist Daleshan (Dalechamp) first has described tobacco in his book which is called “Plants Hystory” (Historia plantarum, 1586) and given it a name in the honor of Nico Nicotiana. Frenchmen started to plant tobacco as herb and ornamental plant. Only in 1585, a group of soldiers, which were landed in Spain and Portugal, has demonstrated Europeans strange spectacle of people who were puffing smoke from mouth and nose.

    In Germany Gete’s expression “well-educated person does not smoke” was quickly refuted by the everyday life. English King James in 1604 has created his own tobacco contra-opposition in which he characterized smoking as a custom, disgusted to eyes, odious to nose, harmful to lungs, in the black smoke – the nearest resemblance with the nether world smoke. Abusive Treatise by James is explained by the fact that there was makhorka that firstly got to England and not tobacco. Peter the first has become passionate smoker during his visit of England, before his ruling, for smoking people were whipped to knout and sent to Siberia. It was widely spread to snuff tobacco, so colorful depicted in Ostrovsky’s plays, special at times precious snuffboxes have appeared. Long and narrow smoking pipes were used, many people have started to collect them. In Moslem Countries quaint devices have appeared – nargile, hookahs and so on in which smoke is passed through vessel with water and then through serpentine curved offtake into smoker lungs. Triumphal tobacco procession leads it to 16 century in India, Indonesia, Japan on Oceania islands. For many countries, tobacco production has become the major source of state budget. (For instance Turkey).
 

 


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